Arcane Lore Expert: Wonder Woman, as both an Amazon demigoddess and an antiquities expert, possesses immense knowledge of and skill in wielding mystical artifacts and arcane lore, notably her Sword of Athena and Lasso of Hestia. Her encyclopedic knowledge was demonstrated when Wonder Woman reacted in dismay to Lex Luthor's speech (knowing how he had twisted the Olympians' history concerning Zeus and Prometheus), when she instantly identified a Parademon in Commissioner Gordon's sketch, and when she explained the history behind Steppenwolf and the 3 Mother Boxes to the remainder of the Justice League.


A Blackfoot demi-god,[52] and a smuggler who trades with both sides of the war and knows how to get people across the front lines.[48][53] On his casting, Brave Rock said, "I had no idea it was for Wonder Woman. I lost it when I showed up and I couldn't remember my lines. I didn't take it literally until a month later, I got a call saying I got the role and they wanted me to fly to London for a fitting."[54] Brave Rock raised several concerns with Jenkins over the representation of the character in the film, particularly that he was not comfortable playing into stereotypes and that he was not keen on his character being simply known as "Chief".[55] Jenkins responded by giving him some extra creative control over his character which Brave Rock says was "unprecedented".[55]
During his greeting speech, Lex made a reference to how Zeus cruelly punished the Titan Prometheus for enlightening humankind, much to the visible dismay of Diana. Shortly thereafter, she covertly stole a hacking device of Bruce Wayne's, who is likewise investigating Lex Luthor. She exited the party with Bruce pursuing her, but manages to make it to her car and drive off just in time for Bruce to see her depart.[5]

A warning that is first heard from the lips of Cheetah as she attempts to escape captivity, yet is echoed by others around the globe, all putting Wonder Woman on alert. As she attempts to investigate, she is attacked by Supergirl, wanting vengeance for the death of Rao, as the influence has gotten to her as well. An epic battle breaks out, and once again, the trusty Lasso of Truth saves the day, though barely.


Lasso Mastery: Wonder Woman is extremely skilled at wielding her unbreakable Lasso of Hestia both offensively and defensively, notably using it to stop an escaping German spy, to take down numerous German soldiers in World War I battles, to retrain a British terrorist leader, to restrain and defeat General Ludendorff, to hold her own against Ares after getting her sword destroyed, to restrain a resurrected Superman (albeit unsuccessfully), and to even restrain Doomsday himself.
Bracelets of Submission: Like all Amazons, Wonder Woman wears two nigh-indestructible gauntlets as part of her armor. They are incredibly durable, capable of deflecting even Ares' massive bolts of lightning and Doomsday's tremendously powerful and destructive thermal attack. Due to her powers as a demigoddess, she also has the ability to create a massive wave of energy outwards when she clashes them together.
The Amazon Queen of Themyscira and Diana's mother.[36] After meeting the director for the role, Nielsen said, "Patty and I met in London, and we just hit it off from the get-go. We couldn't stop talking. What was supposed to be a one-hour meeting turned into a two-and-a-half-hour lunch and we just really got each other."[37] She described Jenkins's directing style for the film as "She's also the kind of director that I really flourish under. She has very strong and particular and specific ideas about what it is she wants to say. She comes from a place of strength always. And so, when you are dealing with someone like that, you feel absolutely free to be vulnerable, to be creative, and I am a big researcher." On playing the character, Nielsen said, "It was a complete and utter pleasure and I absolutely loved every second of playing her."[38] On her character being Diana's mother and Amazonian queen, Nielsen stated, "I'm queen and I'm preparing my child for a world that entails a lot of responsibility. So it was important to me to bring that into the character."[39] She read The Amazons by Adrienne Mayor to familiarize herself with women warriors and said "I used what I learned in Mayor's book as a rallying cry for how I approached Hippolyta. And then, of course, what is a leader who is elected by her peers every year and has been doing this for a thousand years? That too was interesting to think about". Nielsen went through a workout regimen for the film, saying "I did six hours a day. You know, two hours of weight training, two hours of swords training, and then two hours of horseback riding".
Diana's bulletproof bracelets were formed from the remnants of Athena's legendary shield, the Aegis, to be awarded to her champion. The shield was made from the indestructible hide of the great she-goat, Amalthea, who suckled Zeus as an infant. These forearm guards have thus far proven NIGH-indestructible (the Omega Beams of Grail have proven able to shatter them), and are able to absorb the impact of incoming attacks, allowing Wonder Woman to deflect automatic weapon fire and energy blasts.[203] Diana can slam the bracelets together to create a wave of concussive force capable of making strong beings like Superman's ears bleed.[63] Recently, she gained the ability to channel Zeus's lightning through her bracelets as well. Zeus explained to her that this power had been contained within the bracelets since their creation, because they were once part of the Aegis, and that he had only recently unlocked it for her use.[204] After the 2011 relaunch of the character, it was revealed that Diana was the daughter of Zeus and Hippolyta[136] and that the bracelets are able to keep the powers she had inherited from Zeus in check.[189] In addition, Hephaestus has modified the bracelets to allow Wonder Woman the sorcerous ability to manifest a sword of grayish metal from each bracelet. Each sword, marked with a red star, takes shape from a flash of lightning, and when Wonder Woman is done with them, the swords disappear, supposedly, back into her bracelets. As such, she has produced other weapons from the bracelets in this way such as a bow that fires explosive arrows, spears and energy bolts among others.[205]

The origin of Wonder Woman and the psychological reasoning behind why William Morton Marston created her in the way he did illustrated Marston's educational, ethical, and moral values.[226] "William Marston intended her to be a feminist character, showing young boys the illimitable possibilities of a woman who could be considered just as strong as the famed Superman." Gladys L. Knight explains the impact and influences that superheroes have on us in society ranging from the 1870s until the present day.


The team learns that a gala will be held at the nearby German High Command. Steve and Diana separately infiltrate the party, with Steve intending to locate the gas and destroy it, and Diana hoping to kill Ludendorff, believing that he is Ares and thus killing him will end the war. Steve stops her to avoid jeopardizing his mission, but this allows Ludendorff to unleash the gas on Veld, killing its inhabitants. Blaming Steve for intervening, Diana pursues Ludendorff to a base where the gas is being loaded into a bomber aircraft bound for London. Diana fights and kills him, but is confused and disillusioned when his death does not stop the war.
^ Lyons, Charles. "Suffering Sappho! A Look at the Creator & Creation of Wonder Woman". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2006. In October 1940, the popular women's magazine "Family Circle" published an interview with Marston entitled "Don't Laugh at the Comics," in which the psychologist discussed the unfulfilled potential of the medium.
In her debut in All Star Comics #8, Diana was a member of a tribe of women called the Amazons, native to Paradise Island – a secluded island set in the middle of a vast ocean. Captain Steve Trevor's plane crashes on the island and he is found alive but unconscious by Diana and fellow Amazon, and friend, Mala. Diana has him nursed back to health and falls in love with him. A competition is held amongst all the Amazons by Diana's mother, the Queen of the Amazons Hippolyta, in order to determine who is the most worthy of all the women; Hippolyta charges the winner with the responsibility of delivering Captain Steve Trevor back to Man's World and to fight for justice. Hippolyta forbids Diana from entering the competition, but she takes part nonetheless, wearing a mask to conceal her identity. She wins the competition and reveals herself, surprising Hippolyta, who ultimately accepts, and must give in to, Diana's wish to go to Man's World. She then is awarded a special uniform made by her mother for her new role as Wonder Woman and safely returns Steve Trevor to his home country.[86][87]
Her tiara's signature star symbol is now an eight pointed starburst. According to designer Lindy Hemming and director Patty Jenkins, every design decision made for Themyscira came down to the same question: "How would I want to live that's badass?"[197] "To me, they shouldn't be dressed in armor like men. It should be different. It should be authentic and real ... and appealing to women." When asked about the decision to give the Amazons heeled sandals, Jenkins explained that they also have flats for fighting, adding "It's total wish-fulfillment ... I, as a woman, want Wonder Woman to be sexy, hot as hell, fight badass, and look great at the same time ... the same way men want Superman to have ridiculously huge pecs and an impractically big body. That makes them feel like the hero they want to be. And my hero, in my head, has really long legs."[198] This corresponds to the original intent by William Moulton Marston, who wanted his character to be alluringly feminine.

Diana, after her death, was granted divinity as the Goddess of Truth by her gods for such faithful devotion.[78] During her brief time as a god of Olympus, Diana was replaced in the role of Wonder Woman by her mother, Queen Hippolyta.[79] Unlike Diana receiving the title of Wonder Woman in honor, Hippolyta's role as Wonder Woman was meant to be a punishment for her betrayal in Artemis' death as well as for unintentionally killing her own daughter.[80] However, Hippolyta eventually grew to enjoy the freedom and adventure the title came with. Whereas Diana used the Lasso of Truth as her primary weapon, Hippolyta favored a broad sword.


Diana, after her death, was granted divinity as the Goddess of Truth by her gods for such faithful devotion.[78] During her brief time as a god of Olympus, Diana was replaced in the role of Wonder Woman by her mother, Queen Hippolyta.[79] Unlike Diana receiving the title of Wonder Woman in honor, Hippolyta's role as Wonder Woman was meant to be a punishment for her betrayal in Artemis' death as well as for unintentionally killing her own daughter.[80] However, Hippolyta eventually grew to enjoy the freedom and adventure the title came with. Whereas Diana used the Lasso of Truth as her primary weapon, Hippolyta favored a broad sword.
In late 2013, Zack Snyder cast Gal Gadot in the role of Wonder Woman for the 2016 film, Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice over Élodie Yung and Olga Kurylenko.[102][103][104][105] Some fans initially reacted to this choice by criticizing Gadot's appearance.[106] Snyder would later comment on his decision to cast Gadot, stating that he tested a "bunch of actresses, as you can imagine. But the thing with Gal is that she's strong, she's beautiful, and she's a kind person, which is interesting, but fierce at the same time. It's that combination of being fierce but kind at the same time that we were looking for.[107] Gadot described Diana as having "the heart of a human so she can be emotional, she's curious, she's compassionate, she loves people. And then she has the powers of a goddess. She's all for good, she fights for good."[7] She also said that Diana has "many strengths and powers, but at the end of the day she's a woman with a lot of emotional intelligence".[108] As to how her character is different from her appearance in Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice, Gadot said "We go back 100 years to when she's more naive", further explaining, "She's this young idealist. She's pure. Very different to the experienced, super-confident, grown-up woman you've seen".[109] Gadot underwent a diet and training regimen, practiced different martial arts and gained 17 pounds of muscle for the role.[110][111] Gadot was previously offered a different role (as a villain) in Man of Steel, which she declined because she was pregnant at the time; this allowed her to later be cast as Wonder Woman in the film's follow-up.[112] Gadot signed a three-picture deal.[104] She was paid a base salary of $300,000 for the film itself.[113]

Diana confronts Steppenwolf, before Cyborg attacks him, which leads to Wonder Woman fighting Steppenwolf. As Flash helped Cyborg get to the Mother Boxes, he takes care of the Parademons. While Cyborg tries to separate the Mother Boxes, Batman saves Flash by grappling his legs from stopping him from falling: Batman takes one of the Parademons' guns and fires at them. Steppenwolf finds out that Cyborg is trying to separate the Mother Boxes, which he grabs him before Wonder Woman saves him.
A few decades later, second-wave feminist Gloria Steinem's[228] Ms. Magazine debuted in 1972 with an image of Wonder Woman on the cover. Historian Tim Hanley suggests that this move shifted "the focus away from female superiority to sisterhood and equality, essentially making her a mascot of the women's movement".[225][229][230] This perception shifted over the years, as demonstrated in December 2016 when the United Nations decided to drop the title of "honorary ambassador for the empowerment of women and girls" which it had given to the comic book character Wonder Woman a few months prior, in a ceremony attended by the actors who had portrayed her (Lynda Carter and Gal Gadot).[231] The title was eliminated in response to a petition signed by 44,000 people which argued that Wonder Woman undermines female empowerment due to her costume, described as a "shimmery, thigh-baring bodysuit with an American flag motif and knee-high boots". The petition stated that "it is alarming that the United Nations would consider using a character with an overtly sexualised image at a time when the headline news in United States and the world is the objectification of women and girls".[232][233][229] Wonder Woman director Patty Jenkins responded to both the petition and to the U.N.'s decision by stating that she thinks "that that's sexist. I think it's sexist to say you can't have both. I have to ask myself what I would apply to any other superhero".[234]
As Wonder Woman joins the Battle against Doomsday, she arrives just in time to save Batman from Doomsday's lethal thermal blast, deflecting the beams with her indestructible bracelets. She then jointly attacks Doomsday with Superman while Batman tries to expose the creature to Kryptonite, allowing its destruction. She relentlessly battles the monster, and despite Doomsday being stronger, Wonder Woman held her own, parrying a tremendous punch with the Sword of Athena, and then slicing off Doomsday's right arm with it. Eventually, Batman baits the monster into coming closer to her, allowing Wonder Woman to hurl the noose of her unbreakable Lasso of Hestia around his torso.
While the story is very flawed, the art of this arc has been fantastic, and this issue is no exception. Jesús Merino continues to show off his mastery as an illustrator with the battle against King Best. The design of the leader of the Dark Gods is terrific, and the Amazon twins have never looked better. Jason, in particular, looks great as the details in his powers make him appear more powerful than ever. Even if next issue falls apart, I do not doubt that the art will still go above and beyond.

James Robinson is an acclaimed, award-winning writer whose works include Starman, JSA: The Golden Age and Superman. With Geoff Johns, he was co-writer of Hawkman. In addition, he wrote the screenplay to The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, starring Sean Connery, and created the acclaimed young-readers comic series Leave it to Chance. Robinson is currently writing Wonder Woman (Rebirth).
Omnilingualism: Wonder Woman, as an Amazon, has the ability to fluently speak, read, and understand all human languages (even currently dead ones, which allows her to surpass even a polyglot like Sameer), as well as to instinctively identify a language's name when seeing its written form (doing so when seeing Dr. Poison's notes on hydrogen-based mustard gas). Wonder Woman has so far been known to speak or read English (albeit with a mild Middle Eastern accent), French, German, Spanish, Italian, Russian, Mandarin, Chinese, Sumerian, Ancient Greek, Latin, Ottoman Turkish, and Blackfoot, thus making her the most polyglottic member of the Justice League.
Master Combatant: Wonder Woman, having been trained in combat tactics by Menalippe and Antiope, is a tremendously skilled, fierce, and formidable hand-to-hand combatant (being at least on par with Batman[9]), a master of a vast array of unique Amazonian martial arts, as well as an expert in most types of melee weapons (though she most frequently uses her bracelets, lasso, sword, and even shield). She has centuries of combat experience, with her claiming to have fought and defeated several beings from "other worlds" (which includes even the fearsome God of War Ares himself). Wonder Woman swiftly became the greatest warrior of Themyscira, her tremendous combat skills eventually becoming enough to rival even those of her mentor Antiope and ultimately surpassing her upon acquiring full potential, due to the latter (upon Hippolyta's insistence) training her much harder than any Amazon ever before her. Hence, Wonder Woman defeated the notorious Slipknot with effortless ease,[7] as well as many World War I soldiers (she defeated and killed even the enhanced General Ludendorff relatively quickly), and numerous Parademons single-handedly, seamlessly incorporating hand-to-hand combat, sword-fighting with the God Killer (and later with the Sword of Athena), and the Lasso of Hestia in her own personalized, formidable style. Indeed, Wonder Woman's tremendous skill and exceptionally versatile style make her capable of effectively holding her own against either more experienced or more powerful opponents, even the mighty God of War Ares (albeit only with considerable effort and initial failure, given his superior combat experience, and her need to use a non-violent mindset), the New God Steppenwolf, an enraged resurrected Superman, and the gigantic Doomsday, with her managing to temporarily knock the latter fearsome monster down (by smashing his feet from under him with her shield), and even temporarily restrain him with her Lasso of Hestia, as well as cut off his right arm with the Sword of Athena. Indeed, had Doomsday not had his incredibly adaptable healing factor, it is safe to assume that Wonder Woman's tremendous combat skills would have allowed her to ultimately defeat him. Moreover, even when Wonder Woman's sword was destroyed by Ares, she still held her own against the more powerful Old God. However, although she put up a considerable fight, Wonder Woman was ultimately fairly quickly defeated by the resurrected Superman, and was only saved by Lois Lane's timely intervention.
Flash and Wonder Woman get attacked by Steppenwolf and the Parademons before Batman helps her by killing one of the Parademons. Cyborg then falls into the Knightcrawler and hacks it in his control, which he uses it against Steppenwolf. But the Knightcrawler fails when Steppenwolf catched a missile and threw it against the wall, which then causes the harbor to flood which allows Steppenwolf to escape.
The storyline "The Circle" was focused on the revelation of a failed assassination attempt on Diana when she was a baby, by four rogue Amazons.[121] These Amazons – Myrto, Charis, Philomela and Alkyone, collectively referred to as The Circle – were Hippolyta's personal guards and were extremely loyal and devoted to her.[122] However, when Hippolyta decided to raise a daughter, The Circle was horrified and considered the baby ill-fate, one who would ruin their entire race.[123] Thus, after Diana was sculpted out of clay and brought to life, The Circle decided to assassinate the baby. Their attempt was foiled however, and the four Amazons were imprisoned.[124] After years, the Circle escaped their prisons with the help of Captain Nazi, and decided to accomplish their previously failed mission and kill Diana. Diana defeated Myrto, Charis, Philomela and then approached Alkyone, who runs off and succumbs to her death by falling into the ocean. The other three Amazons return to their prisons.[124][125]

Wonder Woman continued to use the plane for super speed, outer space, and multi-dimensional transport up until the unpowered era of Diana Prince. When Wonder Woman resumed superpowered, costumed operations in 1973, she continued to use the jet as before, but did glide on air currents for short distances. At one point, Aphrodite granted the plane the power to fly faster than the speed of light for any interstellar voyages her champion might undertake.[200] Thanks to tinkering by gremlins, the Plane even developed intelligence and the power to talk.[201] The plane proved a good friend, eager to help his "mistress" and her loved ones in any way possible. It got along especially well with Steve Trevor.[citation needed]
After Sekowsky's run ended in the early 1970s, Diana's roots were reverted to her old mythological ones and she wore a more modernized version of her original outfit, a predecessor to her "bathing suit" outfit.[194] Later, in 1976, her glowing white belt was turned into a yellow one.[194] For Series 3, artist Terry Dodson redrew her outfit as a strapless swimsuit.[195]
Carolyn Cocca has stated that Wonder Woman possesses a "duality of character" due to the character possessing both feminine and masculine qualities in her physical abilities and attitude, which Cocca felt made her more appealing to a wide audience.[224] Wonder Woman's first female editor, Karen Berger, claimed that, "Wonder Woman [is] a great role model to young women, but also contains many elements that appeal to males as well. Wonder Woman crosses the gender line.".[224] Berger worked with George Pérez on the new issues of Wonder Woman starting in 1987, and the new Diana "works with friends and allies to teach lessons of peace and equality."[225]
Bracelets of Submission: Like all Amazons, Wonder Woman wears two nigh-indestructible gauntlets as part of her armor. They are incredibly durable, capable of deflecting even Ares' massive bolts of lightning and Doomsday's tremendously powerful and destructive thermal attack. Due to her powers as a demigoddess, she also has the ability to create a massive wave of energy outwards when she clashes them together.
Flash and Wonder Woman get attacked by Steppenwolf and the Parademons before Batman helps her by killing one of the Parademons. Cyborg then falls into the Knightcrawler and hacks it in his control, which he uses it against Steppenwolf. But the Knightcrawler fails when Steppenwolf catched a missile and threw it against the wall, which then causes the harbor to flood which allows Steppenwolf to escape.
Perhaps due to her Amazonian background, Diana greatly respects other noble selfless warriors, as evidenced when she attended Superman's funeral in Smallville and spoke of how he had been much more than a soldier (adding to what Batman said about Metropolis burying an empty casket). As a result of her great posthumous respect, she was, therefore, more than willing to aid Batman in honoring the heroic death of Superman, by helping round up the metahumans from Lex Luthor's files to form a team of superheroes (later known as the Justice League) to protect the world from the imminent mysterious alien invader Steppenwolf and his Parademon minions after Superman's death left the world vulnerable.

With a new decade arriving, DC president Jenette Kahn ordered a revamp in Wonder Woman's appearance. Artist Milton Glaser, who also designed the "bullet" logo adopted by DC in 1977, created a stylized "WW" emblem that evoked and replaced the eagle in her bodice and debuted in 1982.[39] The emblem in turn was incorporated by studio letterer Todd Klein onto the monthly title's logo, which lasted for a year and a half before being replaced by a version from Glaser's studio.[40] With sales of the title continuing to decline in 1985 (despite an unpublished revamp that was solicited), the series was canceled and ended in issue #329 (February 1986) written by Gerry Conway, depicting Steve Trevor's marriage to Wonder Woman.


Wonder Woman is a 2017 American superhero film based on the DC Comics character of the same name, produced by DC Entertainment in association with RatPac Entertainment and Chinese company Tencent Pictures, and distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures. It is the fourth installment in the DC Extended Universe (DCEU).[6] Directed by Patty Jenkins from a screenplay by Allan Heinberg and a story by Heinberg, Zack Snyder, and Jason Fuchs, Wonder Woman stars Gal Gadot in the title role, alongside Chris Pine, Robin Wright, Danny Huston, David Thewlis, Connie Nielsen, and Elena Anaya. It is the second live action theatrical film featuring Wonder Woman following her debut in 2016's Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice.[7] In Wonder Woman, the Amazon princess Diana sets out to stop World War I, believing the conflict was started by the longtime enemy of the Amazons, Ares, after American pilot and spy Steve Trevor crash-lands on their island Themyscira and informs her about it.
In the issue's most surprising twist, made clear in this preview, is that the comic will begin after Diana's battle with the Dark Gods. Parting ways with Steve Trevor after the battle isn't a shock, since fans expect it to be a big, future-altering showdown for Diana (and potentially even more humans). But the fact that the future of Jason is left unclear may be the biggest tease.
Wonder Woman's advocacy for women rights and gay rights was taken a step further in September 2016, when comic book writer Greg Rucka announced that she is canonically bisexual, according to her rebooted Rebirth origin.[255][256] Rucka stated, "... nobody at DC Comics has ever said, [Wonder Woman] gotta be straight. Nobody. Ever. They've never blinked at this."[253] Rucka stated that in his opinion, she "has to be" queer and has "obviously" had same-sex relationships on an island surrounded by beautiful women.[257][258] This follows the way Wonder Woman was written in the alternate continuity or non-canon Earth One by Grant Morrison,[259] and fellow Wonder Woman writer Gail Simone staunchly supported Rucka's statement.[260] Surprised at the amount of backlash from her fanbase, Rucka responded to "haters" that consensual sex with women is just as important to Wonder Woman as the Truth is to Superman.[261]
She is playable as "Dawn of Justice Wonder Woman" in the first Injustice Mobile game, based on her appearance in Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice. In her Themyscira armor she is playable as "Amazon Wonder Woman", and in normal armor she is playable as "Mythic Wonder Woman" in Injustice 2 Mobile, both based on her appearances in Wonder Woman (film).
And yes! I’d love to hear your professional opinion on this book. Personally, I’m loving it. I like the essays, their length, their readability while still being scholarly, and I feel it’s giving me a good sense of the character. I’ve lived and breathed Marvel for so long but I don’t know DC in the same way so this is helping. (And I’ll be teaching Wonder Woman in a new course I’m doing next year on superheroes and social justice so I need to know more about her background too.) But I’d love to know what you think of it, as a seasoned Wonder Woman fan.

Perhaps due to her Amazonian background, Diana greatly respects other noble selfless warriors, as evidenced when she attended Superman's funeral in Smallville and spoke of how he had been much more than a soldier (adding to what Batman said about Metropolis burying an empty casket). As a result of her great posthumous respect, she was, therefore, more than willing to aid Batman in honoring the heroic death of Superman, by helping round up the metahumans from Lex Luthor's files to form a team of superheroes (later known as the Justice League) to protect the world from the imminent mysterious alien invader Steppenwolf and his Parademon minions after Superman's death left the world vulnerable.
Many writers have depicted Diana in different personalities and tone; between both of her diametric extremes; that of a worldly warrior, a highly compassionate and calm ambassador, and sometimes also as a naive and innocent person, depending on the writer. What has remained constant, and is a mainstay of the character, is her nurturing humanity: her overwhelming belief in love, empathy, compassion, and having a strong conscience.[citation needed] This trait had been the reason for her induction into the Star Sapphires.[69][70]
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